[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]anabolic steroids and its effects in bodybuilding. What is Anabolic Steroids? Steroids are a class of drugs that mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone. They are used to treat a range of medical conditions, including delayed puberty, muscle wasting and breast cancer. Anabolic steroids can also be used to help put on muscle mass and improve athletic performance. They work by increasing the amount of protein in muscle cells, which increases the strength and size of muscles. They also increase red blood cell production, which carries oxygen to muscles, while decreasing recovery time between workouts. How do Anabolic Steroids Work?[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Anabolic steroids work by mimicking the effects of testosterone in the body. Testosterone is an androgenic hormone which stimulates bone growth and sex drive in men. It also plays an important role in building muscle mass and strength. The human body produces its own supply of testosterone through a process called steroidogenesis, whereby cholesterol is transformed into pregnenolone which is then transformed into different forms of testosterone. The main male sex hormones produced by males are: dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T). DHT is mainly responsible for male sexual characteristics such as facial hair growth while T is responsible for male characteristics such as increased muscle mass and strength development. Testosterone levels increase during puberty when they peak at about age 20 before gradually declining with age. During puberty there is a surge in production of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland which stimulates production of T from the testes or ovaries before slowly declining with age although it may be artificially enhanced by anabolic steroids use [1]. This effect on T levels causes changes in physical appearance such as increased growth rate, enlargement of the penis or clitoris in boys or girls respectively, increased libido, increase in bone density, increased muscle mass etc [1]. In addition to this there are some properties that anabolics have that help them promote protein synthesis; these include: increased red blood cell count; decreased fat storage; decreased glucocorticoid action; increased IGF1 levels; inhibition of gluconeogenesis etc [2]. In addition to this anabolics can cause a decrease in endogenous T production by suppressing pituitary LH secretion via negative feedback from estradiol metabolites [3]. This results in areverse effect on endogenous T levels where there is low T levels at baseline prior to use but after prolonged use there will be high T levels at baseline due to suppression from exogenous AAS administration [4]. Increased protein synthesis leads to changes in physical appearance such as: hypertrophy/enlargement (increase muscle size); hyperplasia/increase number (increase number) ;hypertrophy/enlargement (increase muscle size); hyperplasia/increase number ;hyperkeratosis/thickening (thicker skin); osteophytic formation (bone spurs); muscular organomegaly (muscle enlargement) etc [2]. These changes lead to improved athletic performance due to greater power output capabilities due to increases in lean body mass coupled with myofibrillar hypertrophy leading to improved force generation capabilities with minimal increases in body weight [5]. Increased red blood cell count results from stimulation by GH receptors leading to increases erythropoietin production leading to greater oxygen transport capacity via more red blood cells being produced; this allows for more intense workouts without fatigue occurring quicker than normal [6] thus allowing for greater gains without overtraining being induced as a result of higher intensity workouts coupled with less rest time between workouts allowing for greater stimulus being applied over shorter periods thus resulting in more rapid gains than normal training alone would allow for without inducing overtraining [7]. Decreased fat storage occurs via both direct lipolysis effects but also indirect effects through decreased insulin resistance resulting from reduction in intraabdominal fat stores thus allowing more energy substrates available for use during exercise[8] while decreased glucocorticoid action results from inhibition via cortisol receptors resulting from high cortisol concentrations acting upon said receptors thus inhibiting their ability to bind cortisol thus preventing catabolism[9]; this results indirectly through glucocorticoid receptor antagonism where elevated cortisol concentrations act upon said receptors inhibiting their ability to bind cortisol thus preventing catabolism[10] without directly inhibiting their ability control glucose uptake into cells thus reducing insulin resistance[11]; this results indirectly through glucocorticoid receptor antagonism where elevated cortisol concentrations act upon said receptors inhibiting their ability to bind cortisol thus preventing catabolism[12]; however GH has been shown not only reduce insulin resistance but also reduce plasma glucose concentration resulting from direct actions on hepatic glucose output via glycogenolysis inhibition resulting from reduced cAMP concentrations as well as indirectly via reduced hepatic glucose output secondary due GH reducing circulating free fatty acids secondary